List of state leaders in the 20th century (1901–1950)

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Lists of state leaders by century:
See also:
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

This is a list of state leaders in the 20th century (1901–1950) AD, such as the heads of state, heads of government, and the general secretaries of single-party states.

These polities are generally sovereign states, but excludes minor dependent territories, whose leaders can be found listed under territorial governors in the 20th century. For completeness, these lists can include colonies, protectorates, or other dependent territories that have since gained sovereignty.

Leaders of constituent states within the British south Asia, are excluded, and found on this list of leaders in the 20th-century British south Asia.

Africa[edit]

Africa: Central[edit]

Angola

  • Ngwangwa, King (1911–1912)
vassal to Portugal: 1888–1914
Colony, 1575–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Cameroon

German colony, 1884–1916
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
League of Nations mandate, 1918–1946; United Nations trust territory, 1946–1960
For details see France under western Europe
League of Nations mandate, 1922–1946; United Nations trust territory, 1946–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Central African Republic

French colony, 1903–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Chad

vassal to France: from 1912
  • Mahamat Abdelkader, Mbang (1918–1935)
  • Ahmad Abu al-Ghazali ibn ‘Ali, Kolak (1900–1901)
  • Dud Murra, Kolak (1901–1909)
  • ‘Asil, Kolak (1909–1912)
Colony, 1900–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Congo: Belgian

  • Sovereign –
Colony, 1908–1960
For details see the Belgium under Western Europe

Congo: French

Colony, 1882–1910
For details see France under western Europe
Federation of colonies, 1910–1934; Colony, 1934–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Equatorial Guinea

Colony, 1778–1968
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Gabon

Colony, 1882–1910
For details see France under western Europe

São Tomé and Príncipe

Colony, 1470–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Africa: East[edit]

Great Lakes area

Burundi
League of Nations mandate of Belgium, 1922–1946; United Nations trust territory, 1946–1962
For details see Belgium under western Europe
Kenya
  • Fumo `Umar ibn Ahmad, Mfalume (1891–1893, 1895–1923)
British protectorate, 1895–1920
British colony and protectorate, 1920–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Rwanda
Tanzania
Colony, 1885–1919
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
League of Nations mandate of Britain, 1922–1946; United Nations trust territory, 1946–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Uganda
British protectorate, 1894–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Horn of Africa area

Djibouti
Colony, 1896–1946; Overseas territory, 1946–1967
For details see France under western Europe
Eritrea
Colony, 1890–1936
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
Ethiopia
Colony, 1936–1941
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
  • Firisa, Moti (1899–1902)
Somalia
Colony, 1890–1936
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
British Occupied territory, 1941–1949
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Protectorate, 1884–1940, 1941–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
United Nations trust territory of Italy, 1950–1960
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe

Indian Ocean

Comoros
  • Saidi Mohamed bin Saidi Omar, Sultan (1892–1912)
French protectorate, 1887–1908; colony under French Madagascar, 1908–1946; Overseas territory, 1946–1961
For details see France under western Europe
Madagascar
Colony, 1897–1958
For details see France under western Europe
Mauritius
Colony, 1810–1968
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Seychelles
Part of British Mauritius, 1811–1903; British colony, 1903–1976
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: Northcentral[edit]

Libya

Protectorate, 1912–1934; Colony, 1934–1943
For details see Italy under southcentral Europe
Allied military administration, 1942–1951
  • Idris, Emir (1949–1951), King (1951–1969)

Tunisia

Protectorate, 1881–1956
For details see France under western Europe

Africa: Northeast[edit]

Egypt

Under British occupation since 1882
British protectorate, 1914–1922
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Fuad I, Sultan (1917–1922), King (1922–1936)
  • Farouk I, King (1936–1952)

Sudan

Condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt, 1899–1956
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: Northwest[edit]

Algeria

French Départements, 1830–1962
For details see France under western Europe

Morocco and Western Sahara

French protectorate, 1912–1956; Spanish protectorate, 1912–1956; Tangier International Zone, 1924–1956
  • Yusef, Sultan (1912–1927)
  • Mohammed V, Sultan (1927–1953, 1955–1957), King (1957–1961)
Overseas territory, 1884–1958; Overseas province, 1958–1975
For details see Spain in southwest Europe

Africa: South[edit]

Botswana

British protectorate, 1885–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Eswatini/ Swaziland

  • Labotsibeni Mdluli, Ndlovukati (1894–1925), Queen Regent (1899–1903) Queen Regent under British rule (1903–1921)
British protectorate, 1906–1968
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • Sobhuza II, Paramount Chief under British rule (1921–1968), King (1968–1982)

Lesotho

British colony, 1884–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Malawi

British protectorate, 1893–1907
British protectorate, 1907–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Mozambique

  • Umar Farelay (also known as Mahamuieva), Sultan (c.1890–1910)
Colony, 1498–1972; Territory, 1972–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Namibia

Colony, 1884–1915
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
League of Nations mandate of South Africa, 1915–1946; United Nations trust territory, 1946–1990
For details see the South African Republic under southern Africa

South Africa

Protectorate, 1893–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1795–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1843–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1902–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1877–1881, 1902–1910
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Zambia

Company rule, 1890–1924
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British protectorate, 1924–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Zimbabwe

British protectorate, 1924–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Africa: West[edit]

Benin

French Protectorate, 1894–1904
For details see France under western Europe
Colony, 1904–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Burkina Faso

  • Yenkuaga, King (c.1878–1917)[4]
  • Labidiedo, King (1918–1920)[5]
  • Yenkpaari, King (1920–1937)[6][7]
  • Yempaabu, King (1941–1986)[5][7]
Buricimba Dynasty
  • Yenhamma, ruler (unknown date)
  • Wurijuari, ruler (20th century)
  • Yentagma, ruler (20th century)
  • Hampandi, ruler (1899–1923)
  • Baahamma, ruler (1892–1905)
  • Hamicuuri, ruler (1905–1942)
  • Yencabri, ruler (1942–1969)
  • Pintyeba Wattara, ruler (1897–1909)
  • Karamoko, ruler (1909–1915)
  • Yenkuagu, ruler (1878–1917)
  • Labidiedo, ruler (1918–1920)
  • Yenkpaari, ruler (1920–1937)
  • Interregnum, ruler (1937–1941)
  • Yempaabu, ruler (1941–?)
  • Brahima Usman, Almami (1891–1915)
  • Bubakar bi Amadu Baba Gedal, Almami (1916–1918)
  • Abdurahman Diko bi Amadu, Almami (1918–1932)
  • Abdullahi Sandu bi Faruku, Almami (1932–1956)
  • Huntani, Boopo (1897–1902)
  • Yenmiama, Boopo (1902–1906)
  • Haminari, Boopo (1906–1910)
  • Simadari, Boopo (1910–1932)
  • Hamicuuri, Boopo (1932–1932)
  • Yensongu, Boopo (1932–1932)
  • Wurabiari, Boopo (1932–1937)
  • Yaaparigu, Boopo (1937–1943)
  • Wuracaari, Boopo (1943–1945)
  • Yendieri, Boopo (1945–1976)
  • Bancandi, Nunbado (1892–1911)
  • Baahamma, Jafuali (1878–1918)
  • Hamicuuri, Jafuali (1918–1919)
  • Yenkoari, Jafuali (1919–1929)
  • Yenhamma, Jafuali (1929–1938)
  • Huntani, Jafuali (1938–1952)
  • Yentandi, Pielabedo (1856–1901)
  • Kupiendieri, Pielabedo (1901–1932)
  • Yentugri, Pielabedo (1932–1949)
  • Yensongu, Pielabedo (1949–?)
  • Koom, Naaba (?–1933)
  • Yamba Sorgo, Naaba (1933–1957)
  • Naaba Sigiri, Moogo-naaba (1897–1905)
  • Naaba Koom II, Moogo-naaba (1905–1942)
  • Naaba Saaga II, Moogo-naaba (1942–1957)
  • Naaba Ligidi, Yatenga naaba (1899–1902)
  • Naaba Kobga, Yatenga naaba (1902–1914)
  • Naaba Tigre, Yatenga naaba (1914–1954)
Colony, 1919–1932, 1947–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Cape Verde

Colony, 1462–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Gambia

British colony and protectorate, 1821–1965
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Ghana

British colony, 1821–1957
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Guinea

Colony, 1894–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Guinea-Bissau

Colony, 1474–1951
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Ivory Coast

Colony, 1893–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Liberia

Mali

Colony, 1880–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Mauritania

French colony, 1903–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Niger

  • Malla, Askiya (1887–1901)[8]
  • Igoumou, Askiya (1901)
  • Zarmakoy Attikou, King (1897–1902)
  • Zarmakoy Aoûta/Awta, King (1902–1913)
  • Zarmakoy Moussa, King (1913–1924)
  • Zarmakoy Saidou, King (1924–1938)
  • Zarmakoy Moumouni, King (1938–1953)
French colony, 1904–1921
French colony, 1921–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Nigeria

  • Zubayru bi Adama, Baban-Lamido (1890–1901)
  • Baba Ahmadu, Baban-Lamido (1901–1903)
  • Eyo Etinyin, King (c.1896–c.1903)
  • Ate, Regent (1892–1914)
  • Gbadebo I, Alake (1898–1920)
  • Ladapo Samuel Ademola II, Alake (1872–1962), in exile (1948–1950), ruler (1920–1962)
  • Sulaymanu dan Aliyu, Emir (1896–1914)
  • Shuaybu Bawa dan Zubayru, Emir (1915–1919)
  • Abdulkadir Dan Bawa, Emir (1920–1959)
  • Grand Viziers
  • Ahmadu Mai Shahada, Grand Vizier (1889–1903)
  • Obiesigha Jaja II (Frederick Sunday), King (1893–1915)
  • Dipiri (Arthur Mac Pepple), King (1916–1936)
  • Sodienye Jaja III (Douglas Mac Pepple), (1936–1942, 1952–1980)
  • Stephen Ubogu Jaja IV, acting King (1942–1946)
  • Ibrahim "Iyalai" "Dodon Gwari", Emir (1877–1902)
  • Muhammad Gani, Emir (1902–1917)
  • Musa Angulu, Emir (1917–1944)
  • Sulaimanu Barau, Emir (1944–1979)
  • Abd Allahi Abarshi dan `Ali dan Yerima, Emir (1888–1904)
British protectorate, 1884–1893/ 1893–1900
British colony, 1821–1957
British protectorate, 1900–1914
British protectorate, 1900–1914
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Senegal

  • Fode N'Gouye Joof, Maad Saloum (1935–c.1960)[11][10]
French colony, 1902–1904
French colony, 1904–1921
French colony, 1848–1960
For details see France under western Europe
Federation of colonies, 1895–1958
For details see France under western Europe

Sierra Leone

British colony and protectorate, 1808–1961
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Togo

Protectorate, 1884–1916
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
League of Nations Mandate Territory, 1916–1946; United Nations Trust Territory, 1946–1956
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
League of Nations Mandate Territory, 1916–1946; United Nations Trust Territory, 1946–1960
For details see France under western Europe

Americas[edit]

Americas: Caribbean[edit]

Antigua

British colony, 1632–1981
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

The Bahamas

British colony, 1648–1973
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Barbados

British colony, 1625–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Cuba

Dominica

British Colony, 1763–1978
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Dominican Republic

Haiti

Netherlands

Dutch colony 1634–1828, 1845–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Saint Kitts and Nevis

British colony, 1882–1983
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Saint Lucia

British colony, 1802–1979
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

British Colony, 1763–1979
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Trinidad and Tobago

British colony, 1797–1962
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Americas: Central[edit]

Belize

British colony, 1862–1981
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Costa Rica

El Salvador

Guatemala

Honduras

Nicaragua

Panama

Americas: North[edit]

Canada

British colony, 1610–1907

Mexico

United States

Americas: South[edit]

Argentina

Bolivia

Brazil

Chile

Colombia

Ecuador

Guyana

British colony, 1814–1966
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Paraguay

Peru

Suriname

Dutch colony 1667–1954
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe

Uruguay

Venezuela

Asia[edit]

Asia: Central[edit]

Kazakhstan

Tibet

Manchu overlordship, 1720-1912
For details see the Qing dynasty under Eastern Asia

Uzbekistan

  • Muhammad Rahim Bahadur II., Khan (Feruz Khan), Khan (1864–1910)
  • Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur, Khan (1910–1918)
  • Sayid Abdullah, Khan (1918–1920)
Russian protectorate, 1873–1917
Russian Krai, 1867–1918
For details see the Russian Empire under Eastern Europe

Asia: East[edit]

China: Qing dynasty

  • Guangxu, Emperor (1875–1908)
  • Puyi, Emperor (1908–1912)

China: Since 1912

  • People's Republic of China
  • Mao Zedong, Chairman (1945–1976), paramount leader (1949–1976)
Puppet state of Japan
  • Puyi, Chief Executive (1932–1934), Emperor (1934–1945)

Japan

Korea

  • Gojong, King (1863–1897), Emperor (1897–1907)
  • Sunjong, Emperor (1907–1910)
Colony, 1910–1945
For details see the Japan under Eastern Asia

Mongolia

Russia

Asia: Southeast[edit]

Brunei

British protectorate, 1888–1984

Cambodia

Protectorate, 1863–1984, part of French Indochina 1887–1953
Japanese occupation of Cambodia 1941–1945

Indonesia

Dutch colony 1800–1811, 1816–1949
For details see the Netherlands under western Europe
Indonesia: Java
  • Pangeran Pakunataningrat, Regent (1883–1901)[12]
  • Pangeran Arya Prataming Kusuma, Regent (1901–1926)
  • Tumenggung Arya Prabuwinata, Regent (1926–1929)
  • Mangkunegara VI, Sultan (1896–1916)[13]
  • Mangkunegara VII, Sultan (1916–1944)
  • Mangkunegara VIII, Sultan (1944–1946)
Indonesia: Sumatra
  • Abdul Aziz Abdul Jalil Rakhmat Shah, Sultan (1893–1927)
  • Mahmud Abdul Jalil Rakhmat Shah, Sultan (1927–1946)
  • Al-Sayyid al-Sharif Hashim Abdul Jalil Muzaffar Shah, Sultan (1889–1908)
  • Syarif Kasim II, Sultan (1915–1946)
Indonesia: Kalimantan (Borneo)
  • Pengian Kesuma, Queen (1899–1901)
  • Kasimuddin, Sultan (20th century)
  • Datu Mansyur, Acting Sultan (1925–1930)
  • Maulana Ahmad Sulaimanuddin, Sultan (1930–1931)
  • Maulana Muhammad Jalaluddin, Sultan (1931–1950)
  • Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie, Sultan (1895–1944)
  • Syarif Hamid II, Sultan (1945–1950)
  • Muhammad Shafi ud-din II, Sultan (1866–1924)
  • Muhammad 'Ali Shafi ud-din II, Sultan (1924–1926)
  • Muhammad Tayeb, Chief of the Assembly Council (1926–1931)
  • Muhammad Ibrahim Shafi ud-din, Sultan (1931–1943)
Indonesia: Sulawesi
  • Husain, Sultan (1895–1906)
  • Muhammad Tahur Muhibuddin, Sultan (1936–1945)
  • Iskandar Opu Daeng Pali’, Datu (1883–1901)
  • Andi Kambo, Datu (1901–1935)
  • Andi DJemma, Datu (1935–1965)
Indonesia: Lesser Sunda Islands
  • Lorenzo II, Raja (c.1886–1904)
  • Ibrahim, Sultan (1881–1915)
  • Muhammad Salahuddin, Sultan (1915–1949)
Indonesia: West Timor
  • Muti Banu Naek, Raja (c.1899–1915)
  • Kusa Banu Naek, Raja (1916–1919)
  • Kolo Banu Naek, Raja (1920–1946)
  • Lodeweyk Lourens Don Louis Banu Naek, Raja (1946–1962)
  • Rasi Koroh, Raja (1872–1887, 1892–1914)[citation needed]
  • Isaac Koroh, Raja (1914–1923)
  • Alexander Koroh, Raja (1923–1925)
  • Hendrik Arnold Koroh, Raja (1925–1949)
  • Kusa, Raja (1895–1901)
  • Arnoldus, Raja (1901)
  • Junus Amtaran, Raja (1901–1903)
  • Kase Kome, Raja (1903–1912)
  • Jacob Ch. Amabi, Raja (1912–1917)
  • Nai Sobe Sonbai III, Emperor (1885–1906)[15]
  • Said Meis Nisnoni, Raja (1890–1902)[15]
  • Baki Bastian Meis Nisnoni, Raja (1905–1911)
  • Nicolaas Nisnoni, Raja (1911–1917)
  • Bil Nope, Raja (c.1870–1910)
  • Noni Nope, Raja (1910–1920)
  • Pae Nope, Raja (1920–1946)
  • Paulus Nope, Raja (1946–1949)
  • Kusa Nope, Raja (1946–1958)
Indonesia: Maluku Islands
  • Muhammad Usman, Sultan (1900–1935)[16]
  • Muhammad Muhsin, Sultan (1935–1950)
Dutch protectorate 1657–1905
  • Iskandar Sahajuhan, Sultan (1893–1905)[17]
  • Zainal Abidin Alting, Sultan (1947–1950)
Dutch protectorate 1683–1915
  • Muhammad Ilham/ Kolano Ara Rimoi, Sultan (1900–1902)[citation needed]
  • Haji Muhammad Usman Shah, Sultan (1902–1915)
  • Iskandar Muhammad Jabir Shah, Sultan (1929–1950)
Indonesia: All

Laos

  • Ratsadanay, King (1900–1904), Regional Governor (1904–1934)
Protectorate and constituent of French Indochina (1893–1953)
  • Zakarine, King (1895–1904)
  • Sisavang Vong, King of Luang Phrabang (1904–1945), King of Laos (1946–1953)
  • Sisavang Vong, King of Luang Phrabang (1904–1945), King of Laos (1946–1953)

Malaysia

Peninsular Malaysia
  • Syed Saffi Jamalullail, Raja (1887–1905)[18]
  • Syed Alwi Jamalullail, Raja (1905–1943)
  • Syed Hamzah Jamalullail, Raja (1943–1945)
  • Syed Harun Putra Jamalullail, Raja (1945–1957)
British protectorate, 1895–1942, 1945–1946
British protectorate, 1826–1942, 1945–1946
British protectorate, 1826–1942, 1945–1946
British colony, 1946–1948
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Malaysian Borneo
British colony, 1946–1963
British colony, 1848–1890, 1904–1906, 1907–1941, 1945–1946
British colony, 1888–1941, 1945–1946; Crown colony, 1946–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Myanmar / Burma

British colony, 1824–1948
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
Puppet state of Japan
  • Ba Maw, Naingandaw Adipadi and Prime Minister (1943–1945)
  • U Nu, Prime minister (1948–1956)

Philippines

  • Mangigin, Sultan (1896–1926)
Colony, 1565–1901
For details see Spain in southwest Europe
  • Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the Revolutionary Government (1898–1899), President of the First Republic (1899–1901)
United States territory, 1901–1935
For details see the United States in North America
First Philippine Republic
Commonwealth of the Philippines
Second Philippine Republic: Japanese puppet state
Third Philippine Republic
Commonwealth of the Philippines
  • Jorge B. Vargas, Presiding Officer of Executive Commission, de facto head of government (1942–1943)

Singapore

British crown colony as part of the Straits Settlements, 1867–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Thailand

  • Abdul Kadir Kamaruddin Syah, Sultan (?–1902)

Timor

Colony, 1702–1975
For details see the Kingdom of Portugal under Southwest Europe

Vietnam

French Protectorate, 1883–1945, 1945–1948
Colony, 1887–1946
Vietnamese constituents are below; for details see France under western Europe
French Colony, 1862–1949
French Protectorate, 1883–1945, 1945–1948
French Protectorate, 1884–1949
For details see France under western Europe
Puppet state of Japan, 1945

Asia: South[edit]

Afghanistan

Asia: West[edit]

Bahrain

Protectorate of the United Kingdom, 1861–1971

Cyprus

Colony, 1878–1960
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Iran

Iraq

Israel

Jordan

  • Abdullah I, Emir (1921–1946), King (1946–1951)
  • Abdullah I, Emir (1921–1946), King (1946–1951)

Kuwait

Lebanon

Oman

Qatar

Saudi Arabia

  • Abdul-Aziz bin Mitab, Emir (1897–1906)
  • Mutʿib bin ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, Emir (1906–1907)
  • Sultān bin Ḥammūd, Emir (1907–1908)
  • Saʿūd bin Ḥammūd, Emir (1908–1910)
  • Saud bin Abdulaziz, Emir (1910–1920)
  • ʿAbdullah bin Mutʿib, Emir (1920–1921)
  • Muḥammad bin Ṭalāl, Emir (1921)
  • Ibn Saud, Emir (1902–1921), Sultan (1921–1927), King (1926–1953)
  • Ibn Saud, Emir (1902–1921), Sultan (1921–1927), King (1926–1953)
  • Ibn Saud, Emir (1902–1921), Sultan (1921–1927), King (1926–1953)
  • Ibn Saud, Emir (1902–1921), Sultan (1921–1927), King (1926–1953)

Syria

Turkey

United Arab Emirates: Trucial States

Yemen: North

Yemen: South

British Colony, 1937–1963
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
  • `Amm Rassas ibn Farid al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (1890–1902)
  • Muhsin ibn Farid al-Yaslami al-`Awlaqi, Amir (1902–1959)
  • Salih ibn `Abd Allah, Sultan (1887–1935)
  • `Awad ibn Salih al-`Awlaqi, Sultan (1935–1967)
  • Salih ibn `Abd Allah al-Wahidi, Sultan (1893–1904)
  • Muhsin ibn Salih al-Wahidi (2nd time), Sultan (1904–1919)
  • `Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Wahidi, Sultan (1919–1948)
  • `Ali ibn Muhsin al-Wahidi (uncertain), Sultan (1948)
  • Nasir ibn `Abd Allah al-Wahidi, Sultan (1948–1967)
  • Muhsin, Amir (?–1903)
  • Sharif Ahmad Muhsin Al Habieli, Amir (1903–1935)
  • Sha´if ibn Sayf al-`Amiri, Emir (1886–1911)
  • Nasir ibn Sha'if al-`Amiri, Emir (1911–1920, 1928–1947)
  • Haydara ibn Nasir al-`Amiri, Emir (1920–1928)
  • `Ali ibn `Ali al-`Amiri, Emir (1947–1954)
  • Nasir ibn Salih al-Wahidi, Sultan (1885–1919)
  • al-Husayn ibn `Ali al-Wahidi, Sultan (1919–?)
  • al-Mansur ibn Ghalib al-Kathir, Sultan (1880–1929)
  • 'Ali ibn al-Mansur al-Kathir, Sultan (1929–1938)
  • Dscha'far ibn al-Mansur al-Kathir, Sultan (1938–1949)
  • al-Husain ibn 'Ali al-Kathir, Sultan (1949–1967)
  • Ahmad III ibn al-Fadl al-'Abdali, Sultan (1898–1914)
  • 'Ali II ibn Ahmad al-'Abdali, Sultan (1914–1915)
  • 'Abd al-Karim II ibn al-Fadl al-'Abdali, Sultan (1915–1947)
  • al-Fadl V ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-'Abdali, Sultan (1947–1952)
  • `Ali ibn `Abd Allah Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (late-19th century–1907)
  • `Abd Allah ibn `Isa Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (1907–early-20th century)
  • Ahmad ibn `Abd Allah Afrar al-Mahri, Sultan (mid-20th century–1952)
  • Abd Allah ibn Muhsin al-Afifi, ruler (1899–1916)
  • Muhsin II ibn Ali al-Afifi, ruler (1916–1925)
  • Aydarus ibn Muhsin al-Afifi, ruler (1925–1958)
  • Qahtan ibn `Umar ibn al-Husayn Al Harhara, Sultan (1895–1903)
  • Salih ibn `Umar ibn al-Husayn Al Harhara, Sultan (1903–1913, 1919–1927)
  • `Umar ibn Qahtan ibn `Umar Al Harhara, Sultan (1913–1919)
  • Umar ibn Salih ibn `Umar Al Harhara, Sultan (1927–1948)
  • Muhammad ibn Salih ibn `Umar Al Harhara, Sultan (1948–1967)

Europe[edit]

Europe: Balkans[edit]

Albania

Bulgaria

  • Vasil Kolarov, Chairman of the Provisional Presidency of Bulgaria (1946–1947)
  • Mincho Neychev, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1947–1950)
  • Georgi Damyanov, Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly (1950–1958)

Greece

Autonomous state of the Ottoman Empire, establishment by the Great Powers, 1898–1913
  • High Commissioners
  • Prime Ministers

Yugoslavia

Serbia & Yugoslavia
  • Chairman of the Presidency of the National Assembly/ AVNOJ (complete list) –
  • Ivan Ribar, Chairman of the Presidency (1945–1953)
  • Josip Broz Tito, General Secretary (1945–1964), President of the Presidium (1964–1980)
  • Ivan Ribar, Chairman of the Presidency (1945–1953)
Croatia
part of the Habsburg Monarchy, also part of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown
part of the Austrian Empire
Puppet state of Nazi Germany and Italy within occupied Yugoslavia
  • Ante Pavelić, Prime Minister/President of the Government (1941–1943)
  • Nikola Mandić, Prime Minister/President of the Government (1943–1945)
Kosovo
administrative division of the Ottoman Empire, under Austro-Hungarian occupation 1878–1913
Montenegro
  • Nikola I, Sovereign prince (1860–1910), King (1910–1918)
  • Nikola I, Sovereign prince (1860–1910), King (1910–1918)

Europe: Baltic states[edit]

Estonia

Latvia

Lithuania

Puppet state of the Second Polish Republic

Europe: British Isles[edit]

Ireland

United Kingdom

Europe: Central[edit]

Austria

Habsburg-Lorraine monarchs ruled under numerous simultaneous titles

Czechoslovakia

Nazi German Protectorate, 1939–1945

Germany: Small states

Bavarian

Prussia

  • William II, Emperor (1888–1918), King (1888–1918)

Upper Rhenish

Lower Saxon

Upper Saxon

Swabian

  • Anselm Ritter, Prince-abbot (1784–1803)

Germany: Unified states

Hungary

Puppet government of Nazi Germany, 1944–1945

Liechtenstein

Poland

Free City under League of Nations protection, 1920–1939

Switzerland

Europe: East[edit]

Moldova

Romania

  • Constantin Ion Parhon, President of the Provisional Presidium (1947–1948), President of the Presidium (1948–1952)

Russia

  • Mikhail Kalinin, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets (1922–1938), Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1938–1946)
  • Nikolay Shvernik, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1946–1953)
  • Vladimir Lenin, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1922–1924)
  • Alexei Rykov, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1924–1930)
  • Vyacheslav Molotov, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1930–1941)
  • Joseph Stalin, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1941–1946), Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1946–1953)
  • Santeri Termonen, Chairmen (1919)
  • Juho Pekka Kokko, Chairmen (1919)
  • Georg Elfvengren, Chairmen (1919–1920)
  • Jukka Tirranen, Chairmen (1920)

Ukraine

1804–1918, crownland of the Austrian Empire

Europe: Nordic[edit]

Denmark

Finland

Puppet state of the Soviet Union

Iceland

Sweden and Norway

  • Oscar II, King of Norway (1872–1905), King of Sweden (1872–1907)

Norway

Puppet state of Germany
  • Reichskommissars –

Sweden

Europe: Southcentral[edit]

Italy

Puppet state of Germany
UN Security Council-controlled temporary military government, 1947–1954

Malta

British colony, 1813–1964
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

San Marino

Vatican

Europe: Southwest[edit]

Andorra

  • Salvador Casañas y Pagés, Episcopal Co-Prince (1879–1901)
  • Ramon Riu i Cabanes, Episcopal Co-Prince (1901)
  • Toribio Martín, Interm Episcopal Co-Prince (1902)
  • Joan Josep Laguarda i Fenollera, Episcopal Co-Prince (1902–1906)
  • Josep Pujargimzú, Interm Episcopal Co-Prince (1907)
  • Juan Benlloch i Vivó, Episcopal Co-Prince (1907–1919)
  • Jaume Viladrich i Gaspa, Interm Episcopal Co-Prince (1919–1920)
  • Justí Guitart i Vilardebó, Episcopal Co-Prince (1920–1940)
  • Ricard Fornesa i Puigdemasa (Vicar capitular), Interm Episcopal Co-Prince (1940–1943)
  • Ramon Iglesias i Navarri, Episcopal Co-Prince (1943–1969)

Portugal

Spain

Europe: West[edit]

Belgium

France

  • Military Commanders –
  • Administrator –

Luxembourg

Monaco

Netherlands

  • Reichskommissar –
  • Leader of the Dutch People –

Eurasia: Caucasus[edit]

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Georgia

Oceania[edit]

Australia and Papua New Guinea[edit]

Australia

Papua New Guinea

German colony, 1884–1919
For details see the German Empire under central Europe
League of Nations Mandate of Australia, 1920–1946
United Nations Trust Territory of Australia, 1946–1975
For details see Australia
British colony, 1888–1902
League of Nations Mandate of Australia, 1920–1946
United Nations Trust Territory of Australia, 1946–1975
For details see Australia or the United Kingdom under the British Isles, Europe
New Guinea: United Nations Trust Territory of Australia, 1949–1975
Papua: Australian external territory (1949–1975)
For details see Australia

Pacific[edit]

Chile

  • Nga'ara, King (c.1835–pre-1860)
  • Maurata, King (1859–1862)
  • Kai Mako'i 'Iti, King (?–1863)
  • Tepito,[24] King (?)
  • Gregorio,[24] King (?)
  • Atamu Tekena, King (?–pre-1892)[25]

Fiji

British colony, 1874–1970
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

French Polynesia

Protectorate of France, 1887/1888–1959

New Zealand

British colony, 1891–1901
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British colony, 1841–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
British protectorate, 1900–1907
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe
New Zealand protectorate, 1907–present
For details see the New Zealand under Oceania
British protectorate, 1888–1901
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Samoa and American Samoa

German colony, 1900–1914
For details see the German Empire under central Europe

Solomon Islands

British protectorate, 1893–1978
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Tuvalu

British colony, 1892–1976
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles, Europe

Tonga

United States

United Nations Trust Territory under the administration of the United States, 1947–1994

Vanuatu

British-French Protectorate, 1887–1889, 1890–1906
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles and France under western Europe
  • Ferdinand Chevillard, President (1889)
  • R. D. Polk, President (c.1890)[26]
British-French Condominium, 1906–1980
For details see the United Kingdom under British Isles and France under western Europe

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646 (London: Hakluyt Society, 1954), p. lxxxvif
  2. ^ Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (25 February 2003). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. p. 26. ISBN 9780810866041. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  3. ^ The social structure of southern Somali tribes, Virginia Luling, pg. 204
  4. ^ Madiéga 1982, p. 123,133.
  5. ^ a b Madiéga 1982, p. 123.
  6. ^ Madiéga 1982, p. 120,123.
  7. ^ a b Madiéga, Y. Georges (1988). "Les Koarima de Koarimadeni: un groupe Kurumba en milieu gulmance". Tribus (in French) (37): 53–62.
  8. ^ Tilho 1911, pp. 505-510 Volume 2.
  9. ^ "Nigeria: Traditional polities". Rulers.Org. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  10. ^ a b Sheridan, Michael J. et Nyamweru, Celia, African sacred groves: ecological dynamics & social change, James Currey, 2008, p. 141 ISBN 0821417894
  11. ^ a b Klein, Martin A., Islam and Imperialism in Senegal. Sine-Saloum, 1847–1914, Edinburgh University Press, 1968, p. XV
  12. ^ Nagtegaal (1995); Werdisastra (1996).
  13. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Truhart (2003), p. 1233–4.
  14. ^ De Graaf (1949), p. 483; Selayang pandang (1990); Truhart (2003), p. 1234.
  15. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ Coolhaas, W.Ph. (1923) "Kronijk van het rijk Batjan", Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 63.
  17. ^ Katoppo, Elvianus (1957) Nuku, Sulthan Sadul Djehad Muhammad el Mabus Amirudin Sjah, Kaitjili Paparangan, Sulthan Tidore. Kilatmadju Bina Budhaja; Widjojo, Muridan (2009) The revolt of Prince Nuku: Cross-cultural alliance-making in Maluku, c.1780–1810. Leiden: Brill. The exact genealogy of the rulers before the mid-17th century is not known by the local historical tradition; for the known details, see Clercq, F.S.A. de (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate. Leiden: Brill.
  18. ^ "Dato' Yazid Mat, Page 4 and 5".
  19. ^ (in Turkish) Emin Karaca, Ağrı Eteklerinde İsyan: Bir Kürt Ayaklanmasının Anatomisi, 3. Baskı, Karakutu Yayınları, 2003, ISBN 975-8658-38-7, s. 23.
  20. ^ Heard-Bey, Frauke (2005). From Trucial States to United Arab Emirates : a society in transition. London: Motivate. p. 73. ISBN 1860631673. OCLC 64689681.
  21. ^ Said., Zahlan, Rosemarie (2016). The Origins of the United Arab Emirates : a Political and Social History of the Trucial States. Taylor and Francis. p. 239. ISBN 9781317244653. OCLC 945874284.
  22. ^ Rodogno, Davide; Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War; p.95; Cambridge University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-521-84515-7
  23. ^ "Cable News". Fielding Star. 1 June 1907. p. 2.
  24. ^ a b Englert, Sebastián (2004). La tierra de Hotu Matu'a: historia y etnología de la Isla de Pascua : gramática y diccionario del antiguo idioma de Isla de Pascua. Editorial Universitaria. p. 65. ISBN 978-956-11-1704-4.
  25. ^ RAPA NUI: INDIGENOUS STRUGGLES FOR THE NAVEL OF THE WORLD[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ "Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government", Hawaiian Gazette, 1 November 1895, p. 1